Skip to main content
European Commission logo
IP Helpdesk

Europe - Glossary


Access Rights (FP7)

are, in the context of FP7, licences and users rights to foreground or background that is held by another participant.

Access Rights (Horizon 2020)

are, for the purposes of Horizon 2020, rights to use the project’s results or background.

Affiliated Entity (FP7)

in the context of FP7, is any legal entity under the direct or indirect control of a participant, or under the same, direct or indirect control as the participant.

Affiliated Entity (Horizon 2020)

in the context of Horizon 2020, means any legal entity that is under the direct or indirect control of a participant, or under the same direct or indirect control as the participant, or that is directly or indirectly controlling a participant.

All rights reserved

is a notice which indicates that all rights granted under copyright law are retained, including the rights to take legal action, if there is any infringement.

Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)

are procedures for resolving disputes out of court in a private forum, with the assistance of a qualified neutral intermediary chosen by the parties. The most common forms of alternative dispute resolution procedures are Mediation and Arbitration.


is the individual or the company who files an application for registration of an IP right (e.g. a trade mark, a patent or a design) with the relevant IP office. The applicant will become the owner of the IP right once it is registered upon the conclusion of the application process. 


is one of the alternative dispute resolution mechanisms that parties may use to settle their disputes instead of going to court. Under this mechanism, the final decision is awarded by a neutral third party (‘arbitrator’) and shall be binding.

Artistic works

is one of the categories of works that is protected by copyright; this term includes photographs, drawings, graphs, diagrams, plans and computer icons, amongst others.

Assignment of IPR

means the transfer of rights and obligations of an IPR to another individual or legal entity.

Associated country (FP7)

means, in the context of FP7, a third country which is party to an international agreement with the EU, under the terms or on the basis of which it makes a financial contribution to all or part of FP7.

Associated country (Horizon 2020)

means, in the context of Horizon 2020, a third country which is party to an international agreement with the EU. A list of these countries is available in the Participant Portal.

Associated partner

in FP7 Marie Curie actions, means an institution which is party to a partnership agreement with the beneficiary, providing research and complementary training and/or secondment opportunities and participating in the supervisory board.


the quality or state of being a creator (natural person) of a work. In order to be considered as an author, it is generally acknowledged that a certain level of creative contribution to a work must be met. Authorship entails certain moral rights, such as the right to attribution (i.e., to be named as the author), that cannot be transferred or licensed, and therefore will stay with the author even in a situation where he/she does not own the copyright.