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Joint authorship

When several individuals work together to create a single work, then all are co-authors of an undivided entire work and have joint ownership.

Joint ownership

refers to the situation where two or more legal entities share the ownership of the same asset. In the context of Horizon 2020, joint ownership of results arises whenever (i) several participants have jointly generated them, and (ii) it is not possible to establish the respective contribution of each participant, or  separate the results for the purpose of applying, obtaining or maintaining their protection.

Joint Research Center (JRC)

is a Directorate-General of the European Commission. It provides independent scientific and technical advice to the European Commission and Member States (EU) in support of EU policies and takes part in research and technological development actions.

Joint technology initiatives (JTIs)

are mechanisms for performing research at EU level. They are long term public-private partnerships with dedicated structures, used as a tool for the implementation of the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) to support, in a limited number of cases, initiatives that could not be implemented efficiently, using the other R&D funding mechanisms. For instance, JTIs dedicate to large-scale multinational research activities in areas of major interest to European industrial competitiveness and issues of high societal relevance.

Joint venture (or joint undertaking)

It is a collaboration of two or more companies to undertake a common project or to pursue a specific objective. To this end, co-venturers bring together their common ressources and capabilities, such as project funding, capital equipment, know-how and intellectual property. The joint venture has the scope to create a legally independent company to develop a competitive advantage by commercialising a new product or service (IP).