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Europe - IP Glossary - T


Technology transfer

in the terms of the Enterprise Europe Network, it can be described as the successful application and/or adaptation of a technology developed in one organisation to meet the needs of one or more other organisations. The transferred technology shall be innovative for the recipient.

A technology transfer not only includes transfer between organisations but also between different industrial sectors. A technology transfer is deemed to have been achieved once a licensing agreement, a joint venture agreement, a manufacturing agreement, and/or a commercial agreement with technical assistance has been signed.

Technology Transfer Agreement

is the assignment of technological intellectual property, developed and generated in one place, to another through legal means such as technology licensing or franchising.

Third Country

in the context of FP7 and Horizon 2020 the term “third country” designates any country/territory that is not a European Union Member State country or an overseas country or territory linked to a European Union country.

Third party (FP7)

means a person or a legal entity which does not participate in the same project, even though such a third party may participate in another FP7 project. If foreseen in the Grant Agreement, some third parties may carry out some work in the project (e.g. subcontractors, affiliates or members of a joint research unit). However, such third parties do not become participants.

Trade mark

may consist of any signs, in particular words, including personal names, or designs, letter, numerals, colours, the shape of goods or their packaging, or sounds, provided that such signs are capable of distinguishing the goods or services of one undertaking from those of other undertakings and of being represented clearly and precisely on the register.

Trade name

A name used to identify a business, as distinguished from a trade mark which identifies goods or services as produced or marketed by a particular undertaking. A trade name does not have to be identical with the corporate/legal name entered in a commercial register.

Trade secret

refers to information which meets the following requirements:

  1. it is secret, meaning that it is not, as a body or in the precise configuration and assembly of its components, generally known among or readily accessible to persons within the circles that normally deal with the kind of information in question;
  2. it has commercial value because it is secret; and
  3. it has been subject to reasonable steps under the circumstances, by the person in control of the information, to keep it secret.

refers to a specific part of the grant agreement (Annex I) in the thematic “Research for SMEs“ and “Research for SME associations“ where participants agree on the conditions of the ownership of the results, access rights to be provided to any SME participant or SME Association and the remuneration of the RTD performers. The transaction is concluded with the approval of REA.

TRIPS agreement

is an international agreement establishing minimum standards for IP regulation in the context of the World Trade Organization (WTO).


Tangible Research Property is defined as tangible (or corporeal) items produced in the course of research projects. TRP includes items such as: biological materials, engineering drawings, computer software, integrated circuit chips, computer databases, prototype devices, circuit diagrams, equipment.