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Europe - IP Glossary - M


Madrid System

is an international system, managed by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), for obtaining and maintaining trade mark protection in multiple countries with a single application, in one language and under payment of one set of fees.

Marie Curie Actions (FP7 People)

was a specific programme under the ”People FP7 Programme” dedicated to stimulate and foster researchers' career development. The programme comprised a set of training sessions, career development and mobility schemes. The programme was designed for researchers of any nationality and at any stage of their career.

Marie Skłodowska-Curie actions

are an integrant part of the Part I 'Excellent science' of Horizon 2020 aiming particularly at strengthening skills, training and career development.

Material Recipient

the person or legal entity receiving research material under the terms of a material transfer agreement (MTA).

Material Transfer Agreement (MTA)

is a contract governing the transfer of one or more materials, such as tangible research property (TRP), from the owner or authorized licensee to a recipient. This agreement is usually signed for research purposes only. MTAs usually prohibit the recipient from using the transferred materials for commercial purposes or outside of the agreement purposes. Some MTAs state that modifications to the material transferred to the recipient shall be treated as still being property of the provider of the materials. The transfer of physical samples of materials (such as cell lines, plasmids, transgenic animals, chemicals, etc.) does not mean the transfer of ownership of the materials or intellectual property rights.


is a process whereby two or more parties to a dispute attempt to reach an agreement on the settlement of their dispute on a voluntary basis and with the assistance of a mediator. Mediation is non-binding and the mediator acts only as a neutral intermediary with no power to decide if the mediation has failed.

Memorandum of Understanding (Horizon 2020)

is an agreement that defines the framework of the negotiations among the partners of a consortium and that is generally concluded in the very beginning of the negotiations on the involvement in a project, even before submitting a proposal. It expresses a convergence of will between the parties, indicating an intended common line of action, helping to explain any protocols for communication, information exchange, reporting, confidentiality issues, and modifications and conditions for terminating the agreement.

Milestones (Horizon 2020)

control points in the project that help to chart progress. Milestones may correspond to the completion of a key deliverable, allowing the next phase of the work to begin. They may also be needed at intermediary points so that, if problems have arisen, corrective measures can be taken. A milestone may be a critical decision point in the project where, for example, the consortium must decide which of several technologies to adopt for further development.

Moral rights

are personal rights granted to the creator of a copyrighted work, which consist of protecting the integrity and right of attribution of the work. These rights cannot be assigned or licensed.