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Europe - IP Glossary - D


Data Management Plan (Horizon 2020)

describes the data management life cycle for the data which is to be collected, processed and/or generated in a Horizon 2020 project.


a collection of independent components (information, works, data or other materials) arranged in a methodical or systematic way and according to specific criteria, and made individually accessible by electronic or other means. Under EU law, the cumulative protection of databases is possible under copyright (if the arrangement of data meets the conditions of originality and creativity) and more broadly, under a sui generis right (provided that the arrangement of data has involved a qualitatively or quantitatively substantial investment).


are additional outputs (e.g. information, special report, a technical diagram, brochure, list, a software milestone or other building block of the action) that must be produced at a given moment during the action (normally not at the same time as the periodic/final reports).

Demonstration activities

are used to prove the viability of new technologies, which cannot be commercialised directly (e.g. testing, prototype, scale-up studies, design, piloting innovative processes, products and services, validation, performance verification, etc.).

Description of the action

in the context of Horizon 2020, refers to Annex 1 to the Grant Agreement, which is built on the proposal's “Technical Annex”.

Description of Work (DoW)

in the context of FP7, refers to Annex I to the Grant Agreement. It contains information on the work packages, deliverables, milestones, resources and costs of the beneficiaries, as well as a text with a detailed description of the work.


constitutes the outward appearance of a product or part thereof resulting, in particular, from the characteristics of its lines, contours, colours, shape, surface, structure and/or materials and/or its ornamentation.

Direct Actions

means the research and innovation activities undertaken by the Commission through the Joint Research Centre (JRC).

Direct utilisation (see Use)

in FP7, refers to the use made by the participant owning the foreground, for example through further research, commercial or industrial exploitation in its own activities.


The first public disclosure of details of an invention. If the disclosure is made before the patent application has been filed (in a deliberate form or otherwise), the invention will in most cases be unpatentable. In return for a patent granted (exclusive rights for a limited time period), the applicant must make a full disclosure of the invention for which protection has been solicited.

Dissemination (FP7)

in FP7, refers to the disclosure of foreground by participants through any appropriate means and including the publication in any form. The disclosure of foreground that results from formalities for protection (such as the patent application publication) is not considered as dissemination.

Dissemination (Horizon 2020)

means, in Horizon 2020, the public disclosure of the results by any appropriate means (other than resulting from protecting or exploiting the results), including by scientific publications via any medium.

Domain Names

A combination of typographical characters corresponding to one or several numeric IP addresses which is registered with an accredited Registrar, and used to identify a particular website on the internet. Each domain name consists of two parts: a top-level domain (TLD – .com, .net, .org, .eu) and a second level domain, which represents the entity that owns the domain name. Although a domain name is unique and may be a valuable commercial asset, a domain name registration is not an intellectual property right.

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